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  • Scholar Asked on July 9, 2018 in PHYSIOLOGY SCIENCES.

    Knowledge that does not require assumptions is called by various names. Direct, unmediated, intuitive etc. I prefer ‘knowledge by identity’. As Aristotle noted all other knowledge is either tautological or uncertain. Only what the sages call upper-case ‘Knowledge’ is free of assumptions. The rest is called ‘relative knowledge’.

    So in reply to the question ‘Is it possible to know something without any assumptions?’ I’d say that it is not possible to truly know something any other way. It seems to me this is a matter of logic.

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  • In a purely resistive circuit if you double the voltage the current will also double.

    The power is the product of voltage times current. If both double then the power is 4 times greater.

    10 v times 5 amps = 50 VA

    20 v times 10 amps = 200 VA

    In a purely resistive circuit, VA and watts are the same.

    RE: What happens if the series current double?

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  • Scholar Asked on March 24, 2017 in EDUCATION.

    For Students

    RE: How Digital Profile will helpful for Topclues User ?

    For Teachers

    RE: How Digital Profile will helpful for Topclues User ?

    • 492 views
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  • Scholar Asked on March 14, 2017 in POLITICAL SCIENCE.

    Security Analysis of India’s Electronic Voting Machines

    Elections in India are conducted almost exclusively using electronic voting machines developed over the past two decades by a pair of government-owned companies. These devices, known in India as EVMs, have been praised for their simple design, ease of use, and reliability, but recently they have also been criticized because of widespread reports of election irregularities. Despite this criticism, many details of the machines’ design have never been publicly disclosed, and they have not been subjected to a rigorous, independent security evaluation. In this paper, we present a security analysis of a real Indian EVM obtained from an anonymous source. We describe the machine’s design and operation in detail, and we evaluate its security, in light of relevant election procedures. We conclude that in spite of the machine’s simplicity and minimal software trusted computing base, it is vulnerable to serious attacks that can alter election results and violate the secrecy of the ballot. We demonstrate two attacks, implemented using custom hardware, which could be carried out by dishonest election insiders or other criminals with only brief physical access to the machines. This case study contains important lessons for Indian elections and for electronic voting security more generally.

    Can the problems with EVMs be fixed?

    Not easily. The entire class of voting systems to which these EVMs belong has inherent problems that stem from a lack of transparency. They force voters to trust software and hardware without proper means of verification.

    This answer accepted by MR_ROBOT. on March 14, 2017 Earned 15 points.

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  • Scholar Asked on March 2, 2017 in EDUCATION.

    The per capita national income during 2015-16 stood at Rs 94,178, an increase of 8.9 per cent from the previous fiscal.

    “The per capita net national income during 2016-17 is estimated to be Rs 103,818 showing a rise of 10.2 per cent as compared to Rs 94,178 during 2015-16 with the growth rate of 8.9 per cent,” as per data on Second Advance Estimates of National Income, 2016-17.

    The data was released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.

    In real terms, the per capita income (at 2011-12 prices) during the current fiscal is likely to attain a level of Rs 82,112, compared with Rs 77,524 for 2015-16.

    “The growth rate in per capita income is estimated at 5.9 per cent during 2016-17, as against 6.6 per cent in the previous year,” the ministry said.

    The Gross National Income (GNI) at 2011-12 prices is estimated at Rs 120.28 trillion for 2016-17, up 7.2 per cent from Rs 112.22 trillion estimated for 2015-16.

    In an interesting unveiling of economic data today, it was revealed that India’s GDP grew at 7 pct in Q3 while full year growth was retained at 7.1 pct. . This belied fears that note ban would have severely impacted economic activity. The Central Statistics Office (CSO) has retained the growth projection for the current fiscal at 7.1 per cent, as projected in the first advance estimate in January.

    Meanwhile, the CSO has also marginally revised upwards the GDP estimates for the first and the second quarters to 7.2 per cent and 7.4 per cent. It was feared that demonetisation effected in the middle of the third quarter (November 9, 2016) would have adverse bearing on various segments of the economy.

    The Reserve Bank of India and other agencies like IMF and OECD had lowered GDP projections arguing that the note ban would have short-term impact on the Indian economy.

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  • Scholar Asked on February 28, 2017 in EDUCATION.

    अब सरकारी कर्मचारियों की तरह एक विशेष लाभ प्राइवेट कर्मचारियों को भी मिल सकता है। सरकार ने प्राइवेट सेक्टर में काम कर रहे कर्मचारियों के लिए 20 लाख रुपये तक टैक्स फ्री गेच्युटी की बढ़ाए जाने की सिफारिश की है। कैबिनेट में प्रस्ताव मुहर लगते ही इसे बजट सत्र के अगले हिस्से में संसद में विधेयक के तौर पर पेश किया जाएगा। 

    श्रममंत्री बंडारू दत्तात्रेय की अध्यक्षता में हुई बैठक में प्राइवेट सेक्टर में भी ग्रेच्युटी की सीमा 10 लाख से बढ़ाकर 20 लाख रुपये तक बढ़ाने पर चर्चा हुई। इससे पहले सातवें वेतन आयोग ने ग्रेच्युटी की सीमा को 20 लाख रुपये तक करने की सिफारिश की थी। कई राज्य सरकारें इसे अमल में लाई हैं।

    सरकार ने फैसला किया है कि सरकारी कर्मचारियों की तरह प्राइवेट सेक्टर के कर्मचारियों की ग्रेच्युटी की रकम दोगुनी की जाए। कर्मचारी यूनियनों ने ग्रेच्युटी संबंधी भुगतान के लिए कंपनी में कम-से-कम 10 कर्मचारियों के होने और न्यूनतम पांच साल की सेवा की शर्तों को हटाने की भी मांग की है।

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  • Scholar Asked on February 8, 2017 in NETWORKING.

    There are two basic limitations that an optical fiber has. The first is actual loss of light as it travels through the fiber and the other is a maximum limitation of the bandwidth of the signals that can be carried. Loss of light in an optical fiber is the result of absorption and impurities within the glass itself as well as losses caused by mechanical strains that bend the fiber at an angle that is so sharp that the light is actually able to “leak out” through the cladding region. Losses are also dependent on the wavelength of the light employed since the amount of light absorbed by glass varies at different wavelengths. At 850 nanometers, the wavelength most commonly used in short-range transmission systems, typical fiber has a loss of 4 to 5 dB per kilometer of length. At 1310 nanometers this loss drops to under 3 dB per kilometer and at 1550 nanometers, the loss is a dB or so. The last two wavelengths are therefore obviously used for longer transmission distances. As a point of reference, typical well designed fiber optic transmission systems can sustain losses of anywhere from 10 to 30dB.

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  • Scholar Asked on February 4, 2017 in COMPARATIVE EDUCATION.

    1. Click on Options, upper right corner of mail page.

    2. Then Mail Options.

    3. Click on Spam from the list on the left.

    4. In the Add a blocked address box, enter the domain. The domain is the part of the email address after address AFTER the @. Leave out the @ symbol).

    5. Click the Add button.

    That’s it…

    This answer accepted by Mohan. on August 16, 2018 Earned 15 points.

    • 343 views
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  • Scholar Asked on November 11, 2016 in CHEMISTRY SCIENCES.

    Sources of carbon monoxide in the home environment can include fuel-burning devices such as: boilers, furnaces, water heaters, fireplaces, charcoal grills, gas and kerosene heaters, gas and wood stoves and clothes dryers. Common outdoor objects that emit CO are: camp stoves, open fire, barbeque’s, lawnmowers, generators, motors vehicles and power tools that contain internal combustion engines. Cigarette and cigar smoking is also a common cause of carbon monoxide pollution.

    Common sources of carbon monoxide in the workplace are warehouses, which operate propane-powered forklift trucks, floor polishers and space heaters, gas-powered concrete cutters, pressure washers and air compressors. Whilst these devices are normally harmless when operated outdoors (due to the air dissipating the dangerous gases), if operated in a confined space, they can prove deadly, so plenty of ventilation must be provided if they are to be used indoors.

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  • Scholar Asked on November 11, 2016 in No Category.

    They are not all that sensitive to forward current – 1% duty cycle 200mA.

    Reverse voltage is more of a problem with this kind of LED, as I understand it, so any kind of silicon diode across the LED will keep it within the -6V limit. You could use a 1N4148, for example.

    The diode will not limit the LED current- to do that you would have to add a limiting circuit in series. It’s possible to do this but probably not worthwhile, depending on what you are using to control the current. For example, if you are using a resistor it’s unlikely to go short. If you are using a current regulator circuit you can add a series resistor so the current regulator is limited in the damage it can do.

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